Timeline

Welcome to Mac’s Bible History.  The following is a timeline of the periods this blog covers, put into chronological order for easier understanding.  The first, and most important thing to understand about Biblical dating is that it is not exact.  The Jewish calendar has only 360 days a year rather than the 365.25 solar days that we use; every date here should be thought as “circa” and not as an exact year.

Consider the following timeline and its events.  This is the timeline that Mac discussed in class and is a brief version of important global events before the birth of Christ.  For further information on the personage or time mentioned, there is a link which will take you to additional reading material.

 

722 – 21 BCE    Israel’s 10 Tribes are conquered by Assyria and deported.

638 – 559 BCE  Solon is an Athenian reformer.

628 BCE         Zoroaster is born.

621 BCE         Draco rules Athens.

600 BCA         Cyrus the Great is born.

597 BCE         The upper classes of Israel are deported AGAIN, this time to Babylon.

595 BCE         Croesus of Lydia is born.

586 BCE         Judah and Jerusalem are destroyed.

563 BCE         The Buddha is born.

551 BCE         Confucius is born.  Zoroaster dies.

550 BCE         Darius the Great (Mede) is born.

547 BCE         Cyrus conquers Lydia.

544 BCE          Chinese General Sun Tzu born

539 BCE         Cyrus conquers Babylon.

530 BCE         Cyrus the Great dies.  His son Cambyses assumes the throne. Cambyses invades Egypt, Meroe, & Libya.

522 BCE         Cambyses dies.

519 BCE         Xerxes I is born.

516 BCE         Ezra’s Temple is re-consecrated.

509 BCE         ROME BECOMES A REPUBLIC.

497 BCE          General Sun Tzu writes ‘The Art of War’

495 BCE         Pericles is born.

486 BCE         Darius the Great dies.

483 BCE         The Buddha dies.

479 BCE         The Battle of Thermopylae /  Golden age of Greece  / Pericles (see article below). Confucius dies.

470 BCE         Socrates is born.

465 BCE         Xerxes I dies.

THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE With the threat from the east gone Athens begins a fifty year period under the brilliant statesman Pericles (495-429 BC) during which time the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis and the city becomes the artistic, cultural and intellectual as well as commercial center of the Hellenic world, attracting all sorts of smart and interesting people and taking command of the other Greek states. Continuing their war against the Persians they liberate the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands.

Island of DelosIn 478 the Delian League is formed by Athens and its allies on the island of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo. After swearing an oath, these Greek city-states, some who were forced to join by threats, begin to rid the land of the last remaining Persians and free the seas of piracy. But as enemies became fewer and members of the league want to devote their resources to peaceful endeavors, Athens is becoming more powerful and forces other members do what is best for Athens. This takes the form of payments, supposedly for the maintenance of the fleet, from the other members. The flow of money is used to build the temples and monuments of the city of Athens. When the island of Thassos rebels against this payment they are attacked by Athens. In 454 the treasury of Delos is moved to the Acropolis for ‘safe-keeping’.

 444 BCE  Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem.

431 BCE  The Peloponnesian Wars begin.  They will last until 404 BCE.  Athens fights Sparta for control of Greece.

430 BCE  Malachi is the last Old Testament Prophet.

429 BCE  Pericles dies.

428 BCE  Plato is born.

399 BCE  Socrates dies.

390 BCE  Gauls sack Rome.

384 BCE  Aristotle is born.

382 BCE  Philip II of Macedon is born.  Philip II is Alexander’s father.

380 BCE  Darius III (Great) is born in Persia.

371 BCE  The Battle of Leuktra.  Thebes defeats Sparta and rules Greece. Philip II is taken hostage by Thebes, spends his time in captivity studying the military tactics of the famous Theban Sacred Band.

356 BCE  Alexander the Great is born.

347 BCE Plato dies.

340 BCE Chandragupta Maurya is born. SEE Article on Cultural Links between the Greco and Indian Worlds

336 BCE  Philip II dies.

330 BCE  Alexander the Great defeats Darius III and the Hellenistic Empire begins. This stops the Persianization of greater Europe.

323 BCE  Alexander the Great dies in Babylon.

322 BCE  The Successor Wars:  The rule of Ptolemy I in Egypt, Judah & Seleucos I in Syria, Babylon and Judah (2 of the 4 little Horns in Daniel’s prophecy).

320 BCE  Bindusara Maurya is born.

317 BCE

Chandragupta Maurya subdues Alexander’s successors, Peithon.  Civil war enables him to seize Taxila, the capital of Punjab.  A peace treaty was forged recognizing  the Seleucid Empire and the Mauryan empires.

269 BCE   Ashoka Maurya succeeds his father Bindusara Maurya.  He converts to Buddhism.

264 BCE  Punic Wars begin:  Rome vs. Carthage.

259 BCE  Emperor Qin (Chin) is born in pre-unified China.

232 BCE  Ashoka Maurya dies.  His son Dasaratha Maurya assumes the throne until 224.

221 BCE  Qin Dynasty begins and China is unified.  Hannibal rises to power in Carthage when his father, Hamilcar Barca is assassinated.

218 BCE  The 2nd Punic War begins when Hannibal begins his march over the Alps.

215 BCE   Antiochus Epiphanes IV (Daniel’s man of cunning, guile, and intrigue).

175 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes reigned and was best known for the forced Hellenization of the Jews

167 BCE   The Wars of the Maccabees begins as a result of Antiochus Epiphanes IV’s Hellenization policies.

147 BCE  The Hasmonean Victories – Seleucids restore autonomy to Judea.

146 BCE

Carthage is destroyed and the Punic Wars end.  Rome is the dominant power on the Italian peninsula. The Achaean War: Rome invades the free cities’ league of                                   Macedonian Greece in response to a popular uprising. Greece becomes nothing more than the Roman provinces of Achaea and Epirus.

141 BCE  Judah becomes an independent state.

134 BCE

John Hyrcanus (see below), repels invasion of Judea led by Antiochus VIII Sidetes.  He allied with Rome and conquered Samaria and Idumaea (Edom) and forced them to convert to Judaism.  Judah is expanded, the Pharisees and the Sadducees become well-defined religious parties.

Hasmonean Dynasty, also spelled Hasmonaean,  dynasty of ancient Judaea, descendants of the Maccabee family. The name derived (according to Josephus, in The  Antiquities of the Jews) from the name of their ancestor Hasmoneus (Hasmon), or Asamonaios. In 143 (or 142) bc Simon Maccabeus, son of Mattathias (and brother of Judas Maccabeus), succeeded his brother Jonathan as leader of the Maccabean revolt  against the Seleucid dynasty. He soon became independent of the Seleucids as high priest, ruler, and ethnarch of Judaea; the offices were hereditary, and Simon thus became the first of the Hasmonean dynasty. He was succeeded by his son John Hyrcanus IAristobulus I, Alexander Jannaeus and his widow Salome Alexandra, Aristobulus IIJohn Hyrcanus II, and the last Hasmonean, Antigonus, who was deposed and executed by the Romans under Mark Antony.

 106 BCE

Pompey is born. NOTE:  Pompey’s rivalry with Julius Caesar, disputing the leadership of the Roman state (Caesar’s civil war), was part of the larger Roman Revolution which killed the Republic and contributed to the rise of the  Empire.  Pompey’s armies annex  much of Palestine.

100 BCE   Julius Caesar is born.

79 BCE  Harod the Great is born.

73 BCE  Spartacus’ slave revolt.  Pompey is given credit for its termination.

63 BCE

There is a conflict between Hyrcannus/Pharisees and Aristobulus / Sadducees.  During Passover, Hyrcannus and his ally Sheik Aretas of Petro besieged Aristobulus in the Temple of Jerusalem.  Both sides make a plea to Pompey for help along with gifts.  Aristobulus  overplays his hand and Pompey comes to Judah, sides with Hyrcannus and annexes Judah as a Roman client.  Pompey conquers Judah.

60 BCE  First Roman Triumvirate formed:  Caesar-Pompey-Crassus.

58 BCE  Caesar conquers Gaul.

51 BCE  Caesar conquers Britain.

49 BCE  Civil war breaks out:  Pompey is defeated by Julius Caesar. Hyrcannus deposed.

48 BCE  Pompey dies.

44 BCE  Caesar dies.

37 BCE   Herod the Great is appointed the King of the Jews by the Roman Senate.

30 BCE   Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide.

27 BCE   Octavian / Augustus comes to power, he is the first Roman emperor.

14 AD   Augustus dies and Tiberius rules during Jesus’ life but reluctantly.

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